What is the origin of chemistry?
Thousands of years ago, before they are talking about corn, the group of thinkers alchemists trying to unravel the mystery of the article and the search for the possibility of finding material can convert copper for example went talked scientists Greeks and later scholars of Islamic civilization for the philosopher's stone, thinking they whereby they can convert metals into gold, and most of the alchemists confuse scientific interests in witchcraft and sorcery, as extended their imagination to find the elixir of life article that make life immortal, but unfortunately did not reach them
This flag placebo alchemy attracted some bright minds and some owners insight like his writing assets Chemistry; and secrets of chemistry, in 815 AD It Jaber bin Alehian to enter a to the attention of alchemy component experiment, testing and distillation processes and filtration and escalation, and discovered several chemicals such as some acids and some alkali and turned to draw some medicines from herbs
Thus was born the chemistry that we know and began to evolve with the progress of thinking and science and tachographs and the like to become a what it is now, was installed Chemistry Geber and cancel all talked about alchemists in the seventeenth century when he made the world Premier Robert Boyle 1627-1691 idea elements chemicals that are باتحادها new vehicles, then the Mendeleyev 1834-1907 table to prove the agenda items and the final spend on the four elements of Aristotle dust, water, air, and fire as the origin of all the existing material on the ground
Chemistry and its importance and its definition
As you know that chemistry deals with material that consists of elements and compounds all of this material have installed and the properties and interactions and transformations, and accompany interactions energy, Vnstantg the foregoing that the chemistry is: science is interested in studying installation material and the changes that occur with the energy associated with these changes
Importance of chemistry
Enters chemistry in all activities of organisms and contribute in all aspect of life by chemistry was converted natural materials raw materials to meet human needs, was able chemical that is produced from coal and oil some new material Kalobbag and drugs, perfumes, plastics and synthetic rubber
Contributed in the field of agriculture chemistry by chemical fertilizers and pesticides possible by chemistry production of synthetic fibers contributed in the field of clothing and textiles, and other of the many areas that contribute to chemistry.
The nature of the chemistry and the scientific way of thinking
Chemical notes things and trying to answer a few questions around such as: Why did the sweet taste of sugar, how and why stainless steel? Here you may note then starts searching for an answer to these observations and questions, and to answer, he should try and depends on experience, because chemistry more science based on experience and that for two reasons chemical deals with assets of Iraha can not counted as atoms and molecules general laws of chemistry are subject to change and amendment
Here may try with experimentation is the codification of information on the results seen from the experience, and then begin the interpretation Mashahdh develop hypotheses, and hypothesis are: the idea stems from the imagination of the world associated with the facts and the facts that took place around the observations and experiments If this hypothesis true and tested several experiments to prove the validity The result became positive become law years, and after interpretation comes the stage of publication of the results for PET interest to everyone
: Now we can arrange the steps in scientific thinking as follows
Codification of information _
Stages undergone by the chemistry:
Stage science workmanship: which appeared myth turn base metals into precious metals
Phase chemistry that tended to Medicine: In this stage drugs were prepared to heal the sick has emerged Arab scientists in such Jabir and Ibn Sina and al-Razi
Stage theory Flogeston: that began in the second half of the seventeenth century, which says that Filogeston element helps article flammable and unite with component oxide material and they called (Kalex): Metal + Flogeston ----> Kalex has remained theory prevailed until he came to the world of French Avoizih in 1778 and proved wrong this theory when heated mercury and demonstrated that the combustion process is a consortium article air oxygen (oxidation) and not as theory Flogeston said
The fourth and final phase is the science of modern chemistry, which began in the late eighteenth century
The role of Muslim scholars in the development of the science of chemistry: Jabir - Abu Chemistry
Is Jabir bin Abdullah, was born in 102 AH (720 AD) in the village of Tus in the north-east of Iran, which lies 28 kilometers from the city of Mashhad, and his father was living before his departure to Tus in the city of Tartous Syrian where he worked Ttara
Jaber worked on the study Natural Sciences and Mathematics, then moved to Kufa, where he met Imam Jafar Sadiq - peace be upon him - which was a scholar in chemistry and religion also and told him about the science of chemistry when Greece and the Egyptians, Persians, Indians and Chinese
Established for himself a laboratory in his home in Kufa tested it himself every Tomb veterans of chemistry experiments to know their validity, and whenever he found himself in need of a new device or machine, making he needs his hands where he was lab house of fire, and in one night record Jaber first Khvin his two aqua regia and water Gold used to this day in the papers and wood coating
Is the author of the theory that all combustible materials and metals (metals) negotiable oxidation consisting of assets mercury and sulfur and salt, a theory Filogeston did not know the world this theory only after Jaber thousand years, and the theory of the Union Chemical, which says that the Union Chemical happens connection atoms interacting with each other , a theory which he (Dalton) after Jaber thousand years
Many proximity of Harun al-Rashid and Baramkeh Because of this proximity Some argued at the time Jaber and after his time that his secrets in the chemistry of the reasons wealth obscene, has created materials to ensure that overcome the problems of soldiers and crossing the sea and read messages in the dark nights, which helped in victories soldiers rational and Baramkeh conquests
Who attended Stone Ironing or stone hell (Silver Nitrate) to injuries and muscle corrupt and still this known until today, and attended مدادا shining from steel (Berit) iron benefit in writing manuscripts, precious and messages army to read in the dark nights, and was attended by coating protects clothes from getting wet , and another protects the iron from rust and thirdly prevent combustion of wood and these coatings is the beginning of the science of polymers now
Discover Jaber paper is combustible to write it documents precious and important messages, and discovered after aqua regia and water gold and water silver element potash and ammonium salt and sulfide mercury and sulfuric acid and sulphide of mercury and arsenic oxide and lead carbonate and the element antimony, a sodium iodide mercury and oil of vitriol pure, was discovered by nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, and enables a combination of both water from the discovery of gold
Find Jaber methods for distillation vinegar Center (acetic acid) now known as acetic snow and methods to dye cloth (flag dyeing) and leather tanning (science tanning) and the separation of silver for gold acid nitric (science concentration ores) and used magnesium oxide in the glass industry, described the natural processes of chemical and an accurate description (steaming and the nomination and intensify and crystallization and melting and escalation) and already the whole world his research in metal calcination and returns to its origin by oxygen. And invented a machine to extract specific weight of metals and stones, liquids and objects, which dissolve in water, and spoke about the toxins and raise disadvantages putting an the basis of Toxicology
He returned to his village Tus start with a vow Nakba Baramkeh and he was eighty-nine years old, and there embarked on work experience and identify the books of large and small number of the most important 45 books, including books on the stones, gold, mercury, animals and the earth, and wrote in assets chemistry industry Maihaml addresses: measures, search , installation, secrets, drainage, assets, assembly, and wrote 112 articles in the chemistry industry including seventy articles explain his doctrine of the chemistry is good verses, and one hundred and forty articles in the science of weights
After five centuries of the death of Jaber and ninety-three years (in his village Tus) Europeans began to translate sets of books into Latin for the Arabic language and the most famous of these books: pure, Alastaatmam, interpolation, calcination
It is noteworthy Holmaard in his book (chemistry to the era of Dalton) to translate books Jaber to Latin was a strong factor in the revival of chemistry in Europe, has never received written fame and publicity in the Middle Ages as enjoyed books Geber, has become a written basis for chemistry in Europe to the end of the eighteenth century and because of his accurate and comprehensive research deserved first Jaber surname of the founder of chemistry on sound scientific bases and solid foundations
Chemical reaction Chemical Reaction
• definition of a chemical reaction:
Is a change in the characteristics of the reactants and the emergence of new recipes in the resulting materials.
Or broken links reactants and forming new bonds in the resulting materials.
• Examples of chemical reaction:
* Fuel combustion * food preparation * Laundry * Configure oil
* Cleaning utensils and clothes * iron rust * representation of food in living organisms
Chemical reaction include:
• Change in the order and distribution of atoms 0
• broken links and forming new bonds 0
• a change in the characteristics of the reactants and the emergence of new recipes in the resultant material 0
• production or absorption of heat often 0
• Equal weights of the reactants resulting material weights 0
((Taking into account the law of conservation of Article)) 0
Types of chemical reactions
1 - ionic interactions: Ionic Reaction
They occur as a result of the exchange between the ions without changing the shipment of ions.
2 - redox reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
They occur as a result of the loss or gain of electrons.
3 - quick reactions Quick Reaction:
They interactions that need time short Kthoana or minutes like reaction
Ions and atoms and simple molecules 0
4 - slow reactions Slow Reaction:
They need time longer Ksaat or days or years. Such interactions
Membership and composition of oil 0
5 - heterogeneous reactions Homogeneous Reaction:
They interactions where the state of the reactants and the resulting one case only.
6 - heterogeneous reactions of others Heterogeneous Reaction:
They interactions where the reactants and generated more than one case.
7 - adverse reactions Reversible Reaction:
They interactions resulting material can be united with each other and be the reactants again ((two-way)) (equilibrium).
8 - non-productive interactions Irreversible Reaction:
Are the interactions that can not be of the resulting materials to unite with each other to form materials again ((two-way)) (case of non-equilibrium).
9 - endothermic reactions Endothermic Reaction:
Are the interactions that need (consume) heat to occur.
10 - exothermic reactions Exothermic Reaction:
Are the interactions that give produces heat when they occur.
Are disintegrate reactions (decomposed) material to two or more elements or constituents of the material.
12 - Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Reaction:
Are reactions include changes in the structure of the nucleus either by:
* Radioactivity. * Nuclear fission. * Nuclear fusion.